Where \(\hat{\beta}\) is a coefficient, \(n\) is the effective number of observations (note that this is different to the effective sample size where repeated observations exist for each respondent) and \(se_{\beta}\) is the standard error of the coefficient, the test statistic is:

\[\begin{align} t=\frac{\hat{\beta}}{se_{\beta}} \end{align},\]

where:

\(p = 2\Pr(t_{n-k} \ge |t|)\),

\(k\) is the number of parameters, including the intercept (where applicable).