A **SUM** is a combination of other categories where the tables involve Numeric Questions.

The **SUM** is computed by:

- Identifying observations with no missing data.
- Computing the sum of the values for each of these observations (excluding any
**SUM**categories on the table that have been created using Create NET). - Taking the average of these sums.

## Creating a SUM

SUMs are automatically created when a project is set up in Q and Displayr. Further SUMs can be created on Numeric Questions by selecting multiple categories, right-clicking, and selecting **Create NET** (see Manipulating Data).

The SUMs that are automatically created (i.e., which, by default, are shown at the base and to the right of tables) are no different to SUMs that are manually created using **Create NET**.

## Computation details

SUMs are computed first at the respondent level, and then the average of these totals is shown on the table. Where there is missing data for any of the respondents in a SUM, the SUM will exclude the data for that respondent. You can check if this is occurring using **Statistics - Cells > Base n** (see also Sample Size Seems Too Small in Q and Displayr). Where this is not appropriate, you can:

- In Q - manually create sums on the Variables and Questions tab, either using Mathematical Functions (by Case) or creating a new JavaScript Variable.
- In Displayr - manually create sums in the
**Data Sets**tree, either by using Mathematical Calculations on Variables or creating a new JavaScript Variable. - Use Rules in Q and Displayr.